Different types of power supply in electrical circuits

In this article, we are going to explain the definition of power supply, different Types of power supply, and their working. In electrical and electronics systems power supply is essential part. The exact power supply choosing very very important to meet the power requirement of any circuit in electrical and electronics. The power for the load or circuit or load mainly include voltage and current. The safety features of the power supply circuit like voltage limits, current and for protecting the load, efficiency, system noise immunity, and physical size.

What is a Power Supply

The power supply is an electrical device used to give electrical supply to electrical loads. The main function of this electrical or electronics supply is to change the electrical current from a source to the accurate desired voltage, frequency, and current to supply the load for circuit. These power supplies can also be named to as electric power converters. Some types of supplies are separate pieces and others are fabricated into the appliances that they control.

Power Supply Circuit   

The Power supply is used in various electrical and electronic devices. The power supply circuits are devided into different types based on the power. For instance, the microcontroller-based circuits are generally the DC 5v regulated power supply (RPS) circuits, which can be designed with the help of different method for changing the power from 110V/230V AC to 5V DC.

The power supply circuit is shown above, and all steps of conversion from 230V AC to 12V DC is discussed below.

  • Step-down transformer converts the 230V AC into 12V AC.
  • Bridge rectifier is used to change 12VAC to 12VDC.
  • Capacitor is used to filter the AC ripples from output current after bridge/
  • Finally voltage regulator regulates the voltage to 5V pur DC.

Power Supply Block Diagram

Classification of Power Supply and Its Different Types

Now we discuss different types of power supplies existed in the market in all over the world.  Differnt supplies functions are showen below in the table.


  • Bench supplies
  • Wall wart
  • Battery charger
  • Variable AC supply
  • Isolation transformer
  • Frequency changer
  • DC-DC converter
  • Inverter
  • UPS
  • Generator

Unregulated Linear Power Supply

The output voltage of an unregulated power supply is not regulated output voltage of these supplies changes as the load cahnge. Unregulated power supplies provide a constant amount of power This type of supplies consists of a transformer, a rectifier and a filter. Little variations in the output are called ripple voltage. So,  electronic circuits can not work properly with unregulated power supply.

Unregulated Power Supply

Variable AC Power Supply

Variable AC Power Suppy is a type of Supply that you can change the power as required. Devices are oprerated on different supplies so AC power Supply is used to operated all types of device becuse the cureent can be increase and decrease thorough this power supply. Mostly this is used in workshops and in reparing labs. Variable AC Power Supply is most commply used power suppy after fix power supply.

Variable AC Power Supply