# History About Gustav Robert Kirchhoff

Kirchoff was born in Köln (Cologne) on June 13th 1824. He studied mathematics, physics, and astronomy at Göttingen University. His research interests included the fields of acoustics and electrical engineering.

His work led to his famous laws, which are named after him:

• The impedance is proportional to the resistance

• A series circuit is equivalent to a parallel circuit with twice the resistance

• An alternating current in a resistor causes a voltage drop that is half of its magnitude

He became professor of mathematical sciences at the Technical High School in Düsseldorf, where he also held an honorary professorship.

In 1865, he received the title of Professor Ordinarius (honorary doctorate), but, soon thereafter, he left Dusseldorf to become the director of a school for technical training in Berlin. He retired from teaching in 1886 and died three years later in Bad Pyrmont.

## What Are Kirchhoff’s Laws?

The first thing to understand about Kirchoff’s rules of electric circuits is that they don’t apply to real life. For example, when electricity flows in a wire it will always follow a path. The second rule says that if you have a circuit with two terminals, then there must be another terminal somewhere else in the system. This is because the current flowing out of one end of the circuit must equal the current coming into the other end.

This means that electrons flow only in one direction and not back to the original source. It also means that the total amount of charge flowing out of the battery never changes.

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## Kirchhoff’s First Law or Kirchhoff’s Current Law

Kirchoff’s current law is a basic principle of circuit theory. It says that any change in the voltage across a component is due to either a change in resistance, a change in reactance (i.e. inductive effects), or a combination of both.

An example would be if you were to connect a resistor with a lamp. The power in the circuit is fixed and only changes because the current goes up. If you replace this light bulb with an incandescent, then it will take much less energy than before. So we say that the amount of power delivered to the load has decreased.

In other words, the power of the device doesn’t decrease; instead, there is simply a redistribution of the power.

Now let’s look at Kirchhoff’s first law. In this case, a voltage source is connected directly to a resistor. There are now no additional components. We know the power entering the battery must be the same as leaving the battery, so the total power supplied by the battery remains constant.

## Kirchhoff’s Second Law or Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law

Kirchoff’s Second Law states that the sum of currents entering a node is equal to the sum of currents leaving a node. The equation for this is:

The current flowing into a junction is equal to the current flowing out of it.

If we apply Kirchhoff’s Second Law to resistors, then the total amount of charge passing through any point is zero. In other words, there is no net loss of energy.

However, if you don’t have a resistor, the situation becomes more complicated because we cannot directly measure the current. Instead, we must find out how much power is being lost. For example, when an electrical appliance such as a light bulb has finished its operation, there will be heat produced inside it. We can estimate the amount of heat by measuring the temperature rise.

So in order to calculate how much electricity is consumed, Kirchhoff’s Second Law allows us to use the formula:

## Common DC Circuit Theory Terms:

Capacitor: A capacitor is a device that stores energy in an electric field between two conductive plates. In other words, it’s a charged plate on either side of a dielectric insulator material. Capacitors store electrical charge in an electrostatic field, which is created by an imbalance of positive and negative charges.

Inductor: An inductor is a physical object consisting of a coil of wire. As current flows into the coil, the magnetic flux lines of force are forced to move around the loop and create an electromagnetic field. The flow of electricity generates a changing magnetic field, which induces electromotive forces in nearby conducting materials.

Resistor: Resistors have resistance, but no ability to transmit voltage. Resistance affects how much power will be transmitted across a resistor.

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## Kirchhoff’s Circuit Law Example

Kirchoff’s law states that electric current is always flowing around a closed loop. This means that no matter which direction the flow of electricity takes, it must also travel back to where it started. In other words, if there’s a path for the electrons to take from point A to B, then they will find their way back to point A again.

In fact, the concept behind Kirchhoff’s law has been used in the design of many electrical devices. For example, it was discovered that when an alternating current (AC) passes through a coil, magnetic fields are produced, and this field causes the AC to change direction. This phenomenon is known as electromagnetic induction. The magnetic field lines are usually drawn outwards from where the current enters, so the same effect can be seen on the outside of the wire.

This property of electromagnetism can also be found in radio transmitters. When a high-frequency wave travels through space, the waves spread out in all directions.

## Application of Kirchhoff’s Circuit Laws

Kirchhoff’s Laws are very important when it comes to analyzing electronic circuits. They are the basis for most electronics design principles and they allow us to see how things work. Kirchoff’s First Law states that “in any closed loop, current entering a node equals current leaving a node”. It is very easy to understand this law because if you imagine a small hole in your desk, then there would be a difference in the amount of air flowing into the room and the amount of air flowing out. Air flows into the room, but the door doesn’t close completely so some of the air will flow back out again. The same thing happens with electrons inside an electronic circuit: they flow from positive to the negative terminal, but they also flow back to their original point. In this way, the total amount of current never changes.

If you look at the left side of Figure 4-11, you can see that there is a resistor. This means that there is a resistance between two terminals of the battery and it is given by R = V/I.

## Currents Into a Node

I have been working on my own Kirhoffs laws project in school. And I am really interested in them. I would like to know how they work and why. Please help me! There is no current flowing through an electrical conductor unless there is some kind of voltage difference between the ends. There are two ways that this happens:

1. The electrons flow from one end to another. This is known as electron conduction.

2. An electric field pushes the charge carriers (electrons or holes). This is known as the piezoelectric effect.

These two effects can be combined by using a material with a high dielectric constant. When a voltage is applied across a capacitor, the charges will move until they reach the opposite sides of the capacitor and cancel each other out. A resistor is used to limit the amount of current that flows. If you increase the resistance, then you reduce the current. The most important thing about these laws is that if you apply a potential to any circuit, there will always be an associated current. The second law states that the sum of currents entering a node equals the sum of currents leaving it.

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