Different types of power supply in electrical circuits

In this article, we are going to explain the definition of power supply, different Types of power supply, and their working. In electrical and electronics systems power supply is an essential part. The exact power supply choice very very important to meet the power requirement of any circuit in electrical and electronics. The power for the load or circuit or load mainly includes voltage and current. The safety features of the power supply circuit like voltage limits, current and for protecting the load, efficiency, system noise immunity, and physical size.

What is a Power Supply

The power supply is an electrical device used to give electrical supply to electrical loads. The main function of this electrical or electronics supply is to change the electrical current from a source to the accurate desired voltage, frequency, and current to supply the load for the circuit. These power supplies can also be named electric power converters. Some types of supplies are separate pieces and others are fabricated into the appliances that they control.

Power Supply Circuit   

The Power supply is used in various electrical and electronic devices. The power supply circuits are divided into different types based on the power. For instance, the microcontroller-based circuits are generally the DC 5v regulated power supply (RPS) circuits, which can be designed with the help of different methods for changing the power from 110V/230V AC to 5V DC.

The power supply circuit is shown above, and all steps of conversion from 230V AC to 12V DC are discussed below.

  • The step-down transformer converts the 230V AC into 12V AC.
  • The bridge rectifier is used to change 12VAC to 12VDC.
  • Capacitor is used to filter the AC ripples from the output current after the bridge/
  • Finally, the voltage regulator regulates the voltage to 5V pure DC.

Classification of Power Supply and Its Different Types

Now we discuss different types of power supplies that existed in the market all over the world.  Different supply functions are shown below in the table.


  • Bench supplies
  • Wall wart
  • Battery charger
  • Variable AC supply
  • Isolation transformer
  • Frequency changer
  • DC-DC converter
  • Inverter
  • UPS
  • Generator

Unregulated Linear Power Supply

The output voltage of an unregulated power supply is not regulated output voltage of these supplies changes as the load change. Unregulated power supplies provide a constant amount of power This type of supply consists of a transformer, a rectifier, and a filter. Little variations in the output are called ripple voltage. So,  electronic circuits can not work properly with an unregulated power supply.

Variable AC Power Supply

Variable AC Power Supply is a type of Supply in which you can change the power as required. Devices are operated on different supplies so AC power Supply is used to operate all types of devices because the current can be increased and decreased through this power supply. Mostly this is used in workshops and in repairing labs. Variable AC Power Supply is the most commonly used power supply after fixing the power supply.